10184 East I25 Frontage Road
Firestone, CO

Phone: (720)378-6670
Fax: (303)557-9701

Physical Therapy Guidelines

Gross Motor Milestones

By Birth-2 months of age:

  • Raises head slightly off floor or bed when on stomach
  • Holds head up momentarily when supported
  • Alternates kicking legs when on back
  • Arm thrusts in play

By 3-5 months of age:

  • Lefts head and chest when on stomach (props on forearm)
  • Head control improving
  • Some head bobbing in supported sitting
  • Rolls from side to side
  • Rolls from stomach to back
  • Sits briefly with arm support
  • Random batting at objects
  • Hands to midline
  • Makes crawling movements

By 6-8 months of age:

  • Reaches to objects on stomach
  • Pivots around when on stomach
  • Pulls self forward on stomach
  • Rolls from back to stomach
  • Sits alone briefly
  • Assumes quadraped and rocks
  • Moves from sitting to lying on stomach
  • Stands with support

By 9-11 months of age:

  • Sits alone with trunk rotation
  • Pivots and scoots in sitting
  • Creeps or crawls
  • Pulls to stand
  • Cruises along furniture
  • Stands alone momentarily

By 12-15 months of age:

  • Assumes tall kneeling
  • Walks on knees
  • Walks independently without support
  • Able to stand without support
  • Creeps up stairs
  • Able to start, stop and turn without falling while walking
  • Crawls up on chairs or other furniture
  • Runs

By 16-18 months of age:

  • Walks up one step at a time with hand held or railing
  • Creeps down stairs
  • Walks with heel-toe pattern, seldom falls
  • Walks sideways and backwards
  • Run stiffly
  • Stands on one foot with help
  • Kicks large ball forward after demonstration
  • Manages riding toys
  • Good balance and coordination

By 19-24 months of age:

  • Walks down one step at a time with rail or hand holding
  • Squats in play and stands back up
  • Jumps in place
  • Kicks a stationary ball
  • jumps off 12 inch box with 1 foot leading
  • walks on balance beam with 1 foot on/ 1 foot off
  • walks up and down stairs alone

By 24-29 months of age:

  • walks on balance beam with one hand held
  • stands on balance beam alone
  • walks up stairs one step at a time with no railing
  • runs well
  • briefly stands on one foot
  • jumps from one step with feet together
  • throws ball overhead
  • climbs on play equipment-ladders, slides, etc.

By 2-3 years of age:

  • walks down stairs step by step without railing
  • balances on one foot 2-3 seconds
  • jumps forward at least one foot
  • walks on balance beam alone
  • walks on tip toe when asked

By 3-4 years of age:

  • walks on balance beam sideways
  • catches a bounced ball
  • rides a tricycle
  • hope on one foot 2-5 times
  • balances on one foot 2-5 seconds
  • consecutive jumping
  • walks up stairs step over step alone

By 4-5 years of age:

  • balances on one foot 4-8 seconds
  • walks on balance beam in all directions
  • walks down stairs step over step alone
  • kicks a rolling ball
  • catches large and small ball with outstretched arm
  • throw a small ball overhand

By 5-6 years of age:

  • balances on one foot 10 seconds
  • skips
  • rides a bike with or without training wheels
  • begins to jump rope
  • hops on one foot ten times
  • catches bounced or thrown ball with hands
  • walks on heals when asked
  • swings on swing, pumping by self

By 7 years of age:

  • rides a two-wheel bicycle without training wheels
  • able to perform sports with good physical control, proficiency developing
  • can travel backwards at a slow speed
  • developing an awareness of space (e.g. travels in close proximity to others without bumping into them)
  • rolls forward and sideways (e.g. forward roll, log roll) using a jerky rather than smooth flow
  • jumps and lands using combinations of one- and two-foot take offs and landings, without falling most of the time
  • jumps a slowly turned long rope turned by skilled turners
  • uses overhand and underhand patterns to throw a ball for distance and accuracy
  • dribbles a ball with hands or feet continually while in a stationary position
  • strikes stationary oversize objects with bats, hockey sticks and golf clubs

By 8 years of age:

  • excels at running, skipping, hopping, galloping, sliding, etc. and can travel in a variety of rhythmical patterns (e.g. even, uneven, fast, slow)
  • moves in all directions (e.g. forwards, backwards, sideways) without bumping into others
  • uses complex combinations of movement skills (e.g. jumping to catch a ball, dribbling and running, rapid transfers of weight from feet to hands to feet)
  • uses combinations of jumps and landings smoothly and without losing balance (e.g. leaps into a two-foot landing, three hops into a two-foot landing)
  • begins to jump a self-turned rope
  • stays in control when traveling and dribbling a ball using hands or feet
  • strikes slowly-moving object with bat or hockey stick
  • beginning to perform weight-bearing activities that require the transfer of weight from feet to hands to feet (e.g. cartwheels, hand stands, walk-overs)